Everything about the computer including some common terminology that you might have heard but not known what it exactly means is here including information about Supercomputers developed by India and the rest of the world. Read till the end to see list of Supercomputers made in India and another list of Supercomputers developed by the rest of the world.
A computer is an electronic machine which stores, reads and processes data to produce meaningful information as output. Whereas the Supercomputer is extremely powerful computers. So, here is a brief data to understand all the basic of computer.
1. Input Unit
It consists of those devices through which the user can enter the data into a computer. Examples of input devices are keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc.
2. CPU (Central Processing Unit)
CPU is considered as the ‘Brain of Computer’. It is responsible for all the manipulations and processing of the data provided to the computer. It is further categorised basically into two main components.
- Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU): This unit performs both arithmetic and logical operations. Arithmetic operations involve addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc.
- Control Unit (CU): it is an important part of that instructs, maintains and controls the flow information bit does not stores the data. It tells the memory, ALU and I/O devices that how they have to respond to the program’s instructions.
3. Memory Unit (MU)
It stores the data and instructions, intermediate results or the processed data. It consists of two types:
- Primary Memory: It is considered to be the main memory of the computer that stores the data which is currently in use by the computer. Types of primary memory :
- Random Access Memory (RAM): It is a volatile memory, which losses the data when the power gets switched off. There are basically two types: Static RAM and Dynamic RAM.
- Read Only Matter (ROM): It is a non-volatile memory, which retains the data even when the power gets switched off. There are basically three types: PROM, EPROM, EEPROM.
- Secondary Memory: The computer system uses secondary memory to store data, program instruction and information It stores the data permanently. Types of Secondary Memory: Magnetic Tape, Magnetic Disk (Floppy Disk, Hard Disk), Optical Disc (CD, DVD, Blu-ray disc) and Solid State Drive (Pen drive, memory cards).
4. Output Unit
This unit contains those devices that provide the desired output (results) in the human acceptable format. Examples of output devices are monitor, printer, speakers etc.
- Hardware: It is defined as the physical components of a computer i.e. the parts that can be seen and touched. The four main categories of hardware are input devices e.g. keyboard, mouse etc., output devices e.g. printer, monitor etc. storage devices e.g. hard disk, floppy disk etc. and processing devices e.g. CPU etc.
- Software: The term software can be defined as the set of programs and procedures that enables a computer to perform a specific task or to process the information. The software can be classified into three types:
- System Software: It is a set of one or more programs designed to control the operations of a computer system including hardware components and implementations of application software, e.g. Operation system, Device driver, language translator etc.
- Utility Software: It is system software that is used to support, secure and enhance the existing programs and data in the computer system. Examples of utility programs are antivirus software, backup software etc.
- Application Software: It is a set of one or more programs designed to carry out operations for a specific application. It cannot run on itself, but it is dependent on system software to get executed. e.g. word processors, spreadsheets, accounting programs etc.
Computer networking relates to communication between a group of two or more computers linked together. A most common example of networking is the Internet. According to scale or size, the computer network can be categorised in three ways:
- Local Area Network (LAN): Graphical area spread over 1km to 10km or within the same building.
- Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): Graphical area spread over a city or town.
- Wide Area Network (WAN): Graphical area spread over countries.
6. Security Threats
- Worm: It is a self-contained program and does not need to be a part of another program to propagate itself.
- Spam: It is an unsolicited message sent over the Internet in the form of e-mails, to a large no. of users for the purpose of spreading malware, advertising publishing etc.
- Spyware: It is a type of malicious software installed on computers and collects information about users without their knowledge and may send such information to another entity.
- Malware: A software which is specifically designed to disrupt or damage a computer system. It is a superset of computer viruses, worms, spyware, trojan horses etc.
- Virus: A virus is defined as a program or a piece of code that gets loaded onto the computer without users knowledge and replicates itself. e.g. Creeper, Stuxnet, Melissa, Conficker etc.
Antivirus is a software consisting of computer programs that attempt to identity, detect and prevent the malware from the computer.
It allows users to connect the server all around the world. It is a global system of interconnected computer networks, through which exchange of information such as data, news, etc. Terms related to the Internet.
- HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP): It sends an HTTP command to the web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested web page. It is used by the World Wide Web (WWW).
- Uniform Resource Locator (URL): It specifies the address of a file and every file on the Internet has a unique address.
- HyperText Markup language (HTML): It is a computer’s language used to create hypertext documents for the WWW. Web pages are created using HTML.
- Domain: These are specific names used in URLs to identify particular Web pages.
- IP Address: It is a 32-bit numeric address separated by four number. Each number can be 0 to 255.
8. Wireless Communication
It is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or wires, e.g. GPS units, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television, etc.
Generation of Wireless Communication:
- 0G (The Zeroth Generation): It refers to the pre-cellular mobile telephony technology in the 1970s.
- 1G (The First Generation): It is a wireless telephone technology and mobile telecommunication introduced in the 1980s. 1G networks use analog signal as opposed to digital signals used by all the successive generations.
- 2G (The Second Generation): It was commercially launched for the GSM (Global System For Mobile Communication) standard in 1991 by enhanced data services and also introduced the Short Messaging Services (SMS).
- 3G (The Third Generation): It was introduced by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 2001. Its data transfer rates are 384 K bits/sec to 2 M bits/sec. So, it allows for never before services like video calls, video conferencing, mobile, TV, etc.
- 4G (The Fourth Generation): TeliaSonera was the first operator in the world to commercially launch 4G in late 2009. Bharti Airtel launched India’s first 4G service using TDLTE (Time Division Long Term Evolution) technology in Kolkata on 10th April 2012.
- 5G (The Fifth generation): It will be a successor for 4G. It is a term used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase.
9. Some Commonly Used Terms
- Cache Memory: It is temporary storage, where frequently accessed data can be stored for rapid access.
- Registers: These are defined as the special memory units by the special memory units used by the CPU to speed up the rate os accessing information.
- Operating System: It is the system software, consisting of an integrated set of programs that controls computer resources and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software.
- Compiler: It is a computer program that transforms human-readable source code into the Machine-readable code at one go.
- Interpreter: It transforms source code into the machine-readable code by converting it line by line.
- Assembler: It converts the assembly language program into a machine language program.
- Modem (Modulator-Demodulator): An electronic device used to convert computer (digital) electronic signals to communication channel (analog) electronic signals and vice-versa.
- Cloud Computing: It is the delivery of on-demand computing resources, everything from applications to data centres, over the Internet, e.g. Google.
- Dual-Core Processor: It is the processing technology in which two processors are scheduled together and when one is busy the other takes over.
- Biometric Device: A device used for user authentication that verifies some physical characteristic of a user such as a person’s appearance, hand geometry, etc.
- Cryptography: It is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular coded form so that only those can read and process it, for whom it is intended. It includes encoding and decoding of data.
A supercomputer can be defined as the most powerful computer in terms of performance and storage capacity. They are highly expensive and are employed for specialised applications such as for weather forecasting several scientific researches, etc.
10. Supercomputers made in India
|Mft Company||Year||Mft Company|
|PARAM Kanchenjunga||2016||C-DAC and NIT Sikkim|
|PARAM ISHAN||2016||C-DAC and IIT Guwathi|
|Aaditya||2013||Indian Institue of Tropical Meteorology|
|PARAM YUVA II||2013||C-DAC, Pune|
|PARAM YUVA||2008||C-DAC, Pune|
|EKA||2007||Computational Research Laboratories, Pune|
|PARAM SARITA||2007||C-DAC, Pune|
11. Supercomputers of the World