Chandrayaan 2: Why India sent a spacecraft to Moon?

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Chandrayaan 2 is considered to be the most advanced mission by India under ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation). This represents a significant technological leap among the total 109 Spacecraft missions of ISRO.

The Chandrayaan 2 is ISRO 106th Spacecraft mission launched on 22nd July 2019 in Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III (GSLV Mk-III).

Chandrayaan 2 facts and figures
Data Source: ISRO

1. Mission

Chandrayaan 2 comprised an Orbiter, Lander and Rover to survey the uncharted South Pole of the Moon. This Indian space mission intended to extend the lunar logical information through itemized investigation of topography, seismography, mineral identification and distribution, surface chemical composition, thermo-physical characteristics of topsoil and composition of the tenuous lunar atmosphere, prompting another comprehension of the source and development of the Moon.

This is a novel strategic mission considering not one territory of the Moon but all the zones consolidating the exosphere, the surface just as the sub-surface of the moon in a single mission.

Everything you should know about 
Chandrayaan 2

2. The Progression

After the injection of Chandrayaan 2, a progression of moves was completed to raise its circle and on August 14, 2019, after Trans Lunar Insertion (TLI) move, the shuttle got away from circling the earth and followed a way that took it to the region of the Moon.

On August 20, 2019, Chandrayaan 2 was effectively embedded into the lunar circle. While circling the moon in a 100 km lunar polar circle, on September 02, 2019, Vikram Lander was isolated from the Orbiter in anticipation of landing. In this manner, two de-circle moves were performed on Vikram Lander in order to change its circle and start revolving around the moon in a 100 km x 35 km circle. Vikram Lander drop was as arranged and ordinary execution was watched upto a height of 2.1 km. Hence, correspondence from the lander to the ground stations was lost.

Timeline of Chandrayaan 2 Indian space mission

3. Launcher and the Spacecraft

Chandrayaan 2 facts

Launcher

The GSLV Mk-III is India’s most powerful launcher to date, and has been completely designed and fabricated from within the country. It is capable of launching 4-ton class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).

Its components are:

  1. S200 solid rocket boosters
  2. L110 liquid stage
  3. C25 upper stage
Chandrayaan 2 Indian Space Mission

Orbiter

The Orbiter will observe the lunar surface and relay communication between Earth and Chandrayaan 2’s Lander — Vikram.

Weight: 2,379 kg

Electric Power Generation Capability: 1,000 W

Why Indian space mission to Moon is so important

Vikram Lander

The lander was designed to execute India’s first soft landing on the lunar surface.

Weight: 1,472 kg

Electric Power Generation Capability: 650 W

Indian space mission

Pragyan Rover

The rover was a 6-wheeled, AI-powered vehicle named Pragyan, which translates to ‘wisdom’ in Sanskrit.

Weight: 27 kg

Electric Power Generation Capability: 50 W

4. Understanding Moon

Orbiter put in its proposed circle around the Moon will enhance our comprehension of the moon’s advancement and planning of the minerals and water particles in Polar districts, utilizing its eight cutting edge scientific instruments. In this Indian space mission, the Orbiter camera is the most noteworthy goal camera (0.3 m) in any lunar crucial so far and will give high goal pictures which will be massively helpful to the worldwide academic network. The exact dispatch and mission the executives has guaranteed a long existence of right around seven years rather than the arranged one year.

5. Why a mission to Moon?

This Indian space mission focused on the Moon because it is the nearest astronomical body at which space disclosure can be endeavored and archived. It is additionally a promising proving ground to show innovations required for profound space missions. Chandrayaan-2 targets improving our comprehension of the Moon, animate the progression of innovation, advance worldwide collusions and move a group of people yet to come of pioneers and researchers.

6. Scientific objectives

How Chandrayaan 2 is so significant for every Indian
Source: ISRO

Chandrayaan 2 is such an Indian space mission which has a few science payloads to grow the lunar logical information through point by point investigation of geology, seismography, mineral recognizable proof and dissemination, surface compound synthesis, thermo-physical qualities of topsoil and piece of the questionable lunar environment, prompting another comprehension of the root and advancement of the Moon.

Moon gives the best linkage to Earth’s initial history. It offers an undisturbed verifiable record of the internal Solar framework condition. In spite of the fact that there are a couple of developing models, further clarifications were expected to comprehend the starting point of the Moon. Broad planning of lunar surface to consider varieties in lunar surface were basic to follow back the root and development of the Moon. Proof for water particles found by Chandrayaan 1, required further examinations on the degree of water atom dispersion on a superficial level, beneath the surface and in the tenuous lunar exosphere to address the starting point of water on Moon.

7. Why Lunar South Pole was chosen?

This Indian space mission is focused on the Lunar South pole because it is particularly fascinating due to the lunar surface zone that remaining parts in shadow are a lot bigger than that at the North Pole. There could be a chance of the essence of water in for all time shadowed regions around it. What’s more, South Pole area has cavities that are cold snares and contain a fossil record of the early Solar System.

8. Legacy of Chandrayaan 1

Chandrayaan 1, India’s first mission to Moon, was launched successfully on October 22, 2008 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic mapping of the Moon. The spacecraft carried 11 scientific instruments built in India, USA, UK, Germany, Sweden and Bulgaria.

Legacy of Chandrayaan 1- Indian space mission

It successfully completed all the major mission objectives, the orbit has been raised to 200 km during May 2009. This Indian space mission satellite made more than 3400 orbits around the moon and the mission was concluded when the communication with the spacecraft was lost on August 29, 2009.

Chandrayaan 1 Details:

  • Mission: Remote Sensing, Planetary Science
  • Weight: 1,380 Kg
  • Onboard power: 700 watts
  • Launch Vehicle: PSLV-C11
  • Orbit: 100 km x 100 km- Lunar Orbit
  • Mission life: 2 years

Refrence: ISRO official website

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