Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.
Because the Industrial Revolution advancement in technology and manufacturing facilities, architecture flourished and it became easier to design buildings. New architectural designs were incorporated with ease from over the world, giving an edge to works produced after the Industrial Revolution.
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
1. MACHINES OF 19TH CENTURY
- There had been no significant change in the technology of communication and manufacture since the middle ages to the 18th century.
- The industrial revolution (henceforth IR) was used in England in the late 18th century via the textile industry.
- Thereafter it spread across Europe notably to France and Germany.
- The IR was characterised by the harnessing of non-animate energy to do tasks that were traditionally performed by animate i.e. animal and human labour.
- The discovery of coal and iron as potential energy sources was the biggest discovery of IR.
- The IR entailed the scientific application of knowledge to perform a task with a view of the increasing inefficiency.
- The result was an unprecedented rate of development the swept across Europe transforming the lives of Europeans.
- Railway stations are the most significant type of 19th century.
2. DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY
The textile industry business was likewise the first to utilize the Industrial revolution. The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain, and a large number of the mechanical advancements were of British beginning. The improvement of exchange and the ascent of business were among the significant reasons for the Industrial Revolution.
3. DEVELOPMENT OF STEAM POWER
Enhancements to the steam power were the absolute most significant advances of the Industrial Revolution, in spite of the fact that steam didn’t supplant water power in significance in Britain until after the Industrial Revolution. From Englishman Thomas Newcomen’s climatic motor, of 1712, through significant advancements by Scottish innovator and mechanical architect James Watt, the steam motor started to be utilized in numerous modern settings, not simply in mining, where the principal motors had been utilized to siphon water from profound operations. Early plants had run effectively with water power, however by utilizing a steam motor a production line could be found anyplace, not simply near water. Water power fluctuated with the seasons and was not generally accessible.
4. DEVELOPMENT OF RAILWAYS
First passenger train was flagged off in England in 1825 thus heralding the arrival of a faster and cheaper mode of communication.
5. DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTH CARE
- Increase in life expectancy.
- Reduction in infant mortality rate.
6. EMERGANCE OF THE PHENOMENON OF URBANISATION
- Shift from an agrarian to industrial base.
- Evolution of urban centres around the industry.
- Increase in population as large man power translated into greater production.
- London became the first city in the world to reach the 1 million mark in population.
- Increase in demand for public housing for factory workers, sub-‐human living conditions prevailed.
- Novel built-‐form types: factory, railway station, warehouse, bridge, office, market, hotel.
- Increase in demand for existing manufacture: more public institution such as schools, churches, hospitals.
- The emergence of civic institutions: town hall thus served as multi-‐functional spaces.
7. ESSENTIALS DEVELOPMENT DURING INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:
Cast iron, wrought iron, steel whose availability made feasible through the Bessemer process of manufacturing.
Plate glass (big size rectangular glass plates)
Rediscovery of Portland cement.
d. R.C.C. :
Biggest invention of that time or IR.
e. WATER SUPPLY:
Clean potable water supplied through a pipe network.
Invention or the water closet hygienic disposal of sewage.
Facilitated longer working hours in factories.
h. CENTRAL HEATING:
Create a comfort living environment for increased output.
Facilitated vertical mobility. Invented by eliha graves firstly installed in NY store.
8. ROLE OF ARCHITECTS:
- Failure or architects to respond to the Industrial Revolution. Therefore, engineers who took advantage of construction opportunities.
- Fear of technology as technology seen as a threat.
- New building demands, new materials and new construction techniques altered their traditional perception of space.
- The biggest question that they confront was not how they should take advantage of the all that technology had to offer but WHAT STYLE SHOULD WE BUILT-IN?
- Anti-‐creationist doctrine prevailed that prevented architects from bold experimentation with form, material and construction techniques.
- Architects were trapped in the past denied imaginative freedom, unlike engineers who forged ahead with path-breaking innovations in the construction industry.
- Architects were on the other hand content merely to clothe building In what would be deemed as appropriate fashion.
- Any new architectural style that represented in 19th-century architecture had to emerge a past architectural style.
- While some architects did try to think out. Ex. British museum, natural history museum, saint pancreas railway station they all look like the same from outside no one can say that this is a railway station and this is the museum.
Reuse or form which are borrowed from the past arch. Styles:-‐ classical, renaissance, gothic, Romanesque to name some.
It is just like a khichdi a mixture of all architectural styles. Use of many architectural styles in the same building.
As a result, the 19th century thus witnessed a battle of styles as each style fought to reign supreme.
What further complications the issue was the emergence of Non-European influences via colonialism as architectural styles seen as ‘exotic’ imported from colonies such as Egypt, India, and China also made their way to Europe.