From about AD 700 to 1200, the Islamic world experienced a period of great power. It led the rest of the globe in learning, invention and architecture. Islamic leaders controlled lands from southern Spain to northwest India.
Islam, significant world religion declared by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the seventh century CE. The Arabic expression Islam, actually “give up,” enlightens the crucial strict thought of Islam—that the devotee (called a Muslim, from the dynamic molecule of Islam) acknowledges give up to the desire of Allah (in Arabic, Allah: God). Allah is seen as the sole God—maker, sustained, and restorer of the world.
The desire of Allah, to which individuals must submit, is made known through the hallowed sacred writings, the Quran (frequently spelt Koran in English), which Allah uncovered to his delivery person, Muhammad. In Islam, Muhammad is viewed as the remainder of a progression of prophets (counting Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, and Jesus), and his message all the while fulfils and finishes the “disclosures” ascribed to prior prophets.
1. What is Islam?
The religious faith taught by the Prophet Muhammad. People who follow the faith of Islam are called Muslims. Muhammad, a religious leader who lived in Arabia from AD 570 to 632. He taught people to worship Allah, the one God. At its peak, the vast Islamic world- stretching from Spain and North Africa, through Central Asia to northwest India- was ruled by Muslim princes and governed by Islamic laws.
2. Who were the Mongols?
They were nomads who roamed over Central Asia. In AD 1206, the Mongol tribes united under a leader known as Genghis Khan (Supreme Ruler) and set out to conquer the world. After that at its peak, the Mongol Empire spread from China to eastern Europe.
3. Who invented the Astrolabe?
The Astrolabe perfected by Muslim scientists who lived and worked in the Middle East in the 8th century. Astrolabes were scientific instruments that helped sailors find their position when they were at sea. They worked by measuring the height of the Sun above the horizon.
4. Who lived in a circular city?
The citizens of Baghdad founded in AD 762 by the Caliph (ruler) Al-Mansur. He employed builders and architects to create a huge circular city, surrounded by strong walls. In addition, there were palaces, government offices, mosques, hospitals, schools, libraries and gardens.
5. What were ships of desert?
Camels owned by merchants who lived in Arabia. They are the only animals that could survive long enough without food and water to make journeys across the desert, laden with goods to sell. They stored enough nourishment in their humps to last several days.
6. What were the crusades?
A series of wars fought between Christian and Muslim soldiers for control of the area around Jerusalem (in present-day Israel), which was holy to Muslims, Christians and Jews. The Crusades began in 1905 when a Christian army attacked (image above). Their main period ended in 1921 when Muslim soldiers forced the Christians to leave.